WHY DO PEOPLE MIGRATE?
Whenever I go to my grandparents home during the vacation the village is with full of people. It looks like a procession. But to my great surprise when I went home for the mid-semester break time which is in October I wasn’t able to see the procession like that any more. When I was walking towards home from the bus stop, even the villagers whom I saw previously were not there. This made me to think a lot as in why there was no one to even say hello to me. I was very curious to know the reason behind this, so I asked my maternal grandparents. My grandparents explained to me that the villagers weren’t able to meet their daily needs which led them to migrate. So from this small instance I was exposed to an important and more relevant topic called migration.
Migration is nothing but moving of individuals or a community from their natural habitat to another new place in search of new job opportunities, education etc for their survival and also which might help them in repaying the debts they have taken from various people. Migration is of two types. The first type is where the people are migrating within the state they reside in. The second type includes people who move out of the state. Within these two types, we can sub categorize the people into two more types. One who migrates permanently to the new place and never come back. Second who come back after few months or years to their place.
So I started to ask the people what made them to migrate from my grandparents place called Kanimetta (vi), Mahabharata (dist), Telangana state. As I have mentioned above there are two types of migration. Firstly I concentrated on the people who migrated within the state.
Migration within the state :
People from Kanimetta mainly migrate to a place called Hyderabad, a city which is developed industrially and in construction field. The city is 120 km away from the place where they were living. Based on the purpose they were migrating they pack up their luggage. If they are migrating for job they just pack up the things like clothes and also the pickle until they get adjusted with the food in that place. While the people who migrate for the construction field and other works they will take almost everything like clothes, rice, food items etc which are required for the survival of human beings. People will migrate individually or with family. It depends on the situation of the family. Their traveling may take around 4 to 5 hours, and also these people were organized, for job the company will organize their traveling, whereas for the construction people there will be one man called mason who will organize them and he will take them to the spot of the place where they have to work.
The decision for the migration is mostly done by the head of the family. If the job is to do with working in a company only, the one who got the job will leave the home, whereas for construction work both the husband and the wife will work together. The reason for the migration is mainly debts, and also there are no works in villages to do. If the person who does a job in a company get profit, they will get their family to settle there by owning land and constructing house there itself. Whereas construction people will go with the agreement of doing work for the 8 to 10 months in a year and they will return to their place. Then in a month or two they will again start searching for works and move to another place which gives them work. For a person who works in a company, he has to go and search for the job or there will be a person who knows him in any of company and he will ask the manager if there is any work for him. If he gets the job he works or wait for another job which will accept him. Whereas for the construction people there is waiting work to do as they have agreed before to do that work with the mason.
When we compare the income of a person who works in the company with a laborer, the monthly wage has a huge difference. The person who is working in the company earns around 10,000 to 12,0000 rupees whereas laborers will earn 4,000 monthly and also mason will pay 40,000 before they come to work there as an agreement to do that work. As these people work within the state there will be no discrimination in the places where they go for work. The people are good around them and also they cope with them very easily as they belong to the same region. The work they were doing was not much satisfactory for them as they were not earning enough money and also the work is too difficult to do, some like their work, some as they have goals to do but for some problems they left that goal and working so there was no satisfactory for them. This is about the people who are migrating within the state, settlers and non settlers who are migrating to some other places.
Migration out of the state :
Coming to the people who are migrating out of the state. This people’s migration is much similar to the people who are migrating within the state who are working as construction laborers. In this type of migration, people will migrate along with the family. If they have children who are less than 15 years of age they will leave their children with their grandparents. The reasons for migration, work timings, and also the income is similar to construction people who are migrating within the state and the decision here is made by talking with each other and coming to one decision. But here the journey may take around half a day or even one day. The places mainly they were travelling is to South Indian places like Karnataka, Tamilnadu, etc. As they were travelling to different places they were living with people of different languages. So it takes time for them to get close with others. Even though they were living with different people from different states they have never faced any discrimination. The people around them were good and the way they behave with them is also good. These people are also not much satisfactory for what they were doing in their life. Some of the things which disturb them is not getting enough money, they can’t clear their debts. So these people were thinking not to go for the next time. As these people were going out of their state it helped them to learn languages other than their mother tongue like Kannada, Tamil, and also Hindi. And also these make them to know about the culture, the different living style of their neighborhood.
Now slowly the people were stopping to work with the agreement. As they were not getting enough money to solve their problems, as they can’t make their children to continue higher studies they thought of stopping doing work which is related to agreements. So they decided to go to nearby city and work as daily wage workers.
Migration of students :
There are also under 20 years aged students who are migrating during their summer holidays. There main intention is not to depend much on their parents for everything in their life like clothes , mobile phones, books etc. These people travel to nearby city or town to work in the shops like hotels, dress shops, and also they will work even in the mechanic shops if they knew it before how to do it. The first thing they do is talking to the people who are already working in that particular field and getting to know if there are any vacant job positions which can be occupied by them. If they came to know that there are vacant job position they are ready to work in that field. They return immediately from the working place as soon as the vacation finishes. The salary they receive from their hard work is utilized in buying necessary things which are mentioned above. If more number of people are allowed to come and work, the people who decided to work here talk to their other friends and encourage them to join in. Finally it turns out that they allow join to together and travel as a group to work.
It takes two to three days for them to find a house for a rent. All of them live in the same house and they will share the household works like one has to cook, one has to clean utensils, sweeping etc. They used to bring the rice, one small stove for cooking, utensils, bed sheets etc which are necessary for them to live for vacation. In this way they share everything they bought. This is the way the students migrate from their place and return to there place.
Raju, Narasimha, Akhil, Prasad
From these I conclude that as the people are migrating more from the villages to the city there will be not more development in villages. Due to the fact that many of the people are migrating to cities, the cities in turn are facing a lot of issues like economic problems to both the government and the citizens, overcrowding of people in the cities, decrease in job opportunities, no proper sanitation facilities which leads to the formation of slums in cities itself. So we can infer that migration has both good and bad elements to it. It is left to each individual to decide which option they want but it is important that we don’t see migration as a primary source of progress. I feel that greater attention has to be given in the management of migration. It would be helpful if the government take initiatives to solve this increase in migration problem so that there will also be development in rural areas. Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy. In rural area many people’s occupation depends upon agriculture only which is the main national income source in India so government should keep this in its priority list. If workshops, training centers and awareness camps come into action it will clear a lot of doubts in the minds of the people and encourage them not to leave the place. It will also be helpful if hospitals, schools, educational institutions, banks, well connected roads etc are built. If we bring all of these ideas into action we can somehow cease the migration limit a little bit which in turn will be helpful to the villages as a whole.